Biomass and Bioenergy: Processing and Properties

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Forestry wastes such as bark and thinnings and other solid wastes, including sewage sludge and leather wastes, have also been studied. In this review, the main although not exclusive emphasis has been given to wood. The effect of the wood composition and structure, heating rate, and residence time during pyrolysis on the overall reaction rate and the yield of the volatiles are also discussed. Although very fast and very slow pyrolyses of biomass produce markedly different products, the variety of heating rates, temperatures, residence times, and feedstock varieties found in the literature make generalizations difficult to define, in regard to trying to critically analyze the literature.

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Biomass & Bioenergy

Cite this: Energy Fuels 20 3 Article Views Altmetric -. Citations Abstract Fast pyrolysis utilizes biomass to produce a product that is used both as an energy source and a feedstock for chemical production. Cited By. Methanol is currently most produced by the catalytic conversion of syngas a mix of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen from fossil sources. Biomethanol can be produced from a wide range of biomass feedstocks via a thermochemical route similar to the Fischer-Tropsch process for BtL. BioDME dimethylether can be produced via catalytic dehydration of methanol or directly from syngas.

Hence its use as a transport fuel can be considered similar to that of LPG. Biobutanol is an alcohol that can be used as a transport fuel.

Pyrolysis of Wood/Biomass for Bio-oil: A Critical Review | Energy & Fuels

Each molecule contains four carbon atoms rather than two as in ethanol. It is more compatible with existing fuel infrastructures and engines than ethanol. Novel fermentation techniques are being developed to convert sugars into butanol using modified yeast strains. Drop-in biofuels via biotechnology, synthetic biology, modified metabolism and other techniques are being developed to convert plant sugars to a range of fuels that have similar properties to fossil gasoline or diesel.

Biohydrogen Hydrogen can potentially be produced from biomass via various routes and can be used as a vehicle fuel. Biohydrogen is not currently being produced at significant volumes, but could be an important fuel in the future. Algal biofuels may be produced from macro algae seaweeds and microalgae via a range of technologies.

Biodiesel Production

A number of projects and pilot plants are now identifying the best types of algae to use and the best production technologies. Various advanced biofuels can be produced with algae as feedstock, but economics call for higher-value products, such as cosmetics, pigments, food supplements and additives etc. Algal biofuels have attracted great interest as they do not compete with food crops for land use, but the technology is not yet as mature as that for some other advanced biofuels.

Biomass Fuel Performance

In general, advanced bioenergy is produced from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials, such as agricultural and forestry residues , wastes , energy crops , or aquatic biomass. The aim is to develop energy crops that result in the production of more fuel per unit of land used and require less chemical and energy input for production and harvesting. This results in a higher yield in terms of net GJ energy produced per hectare land used. Preferably, energy crops are grown on marginal land that does not compete directly with or displace land used for food crops.

In advanced bioenergy for the EHC market, the feedstocks used in conventional bioenergy are applied in pretreated form. This minimizes changes needed in installed infrastructure.


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In EU legislation, advanced biofuels are defined by the feedstock used. Yes, if done in the right way.


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The positive effect on GHG emissions reduction can be calculated by a Life Cycle Assessment LCA , for any specific pathway, taking into account the cultivation, harvest, transport and conversion. Generally such assessments show that advanced bioenergy offers great reduction of GHG emissions compared to conventional bioenergy and the more when compared to fossil fuel or energy.

Biomass & Bioenergy

However, there is competition for land and feedstock between advanced biofuels, use for heat and power generation through combustion, and material use. The European Technology and Innovation Platform ETIP Bioenergy brings together stakeholders from academia, industry and civil society involved in the development of research and innovation strategies for energy technologies, who interact with relevant public authorities of the EU Member States as well as the European Commission. The aim, defined in the Terms of References, is to come to a coordinated, coherent and efficient implementation of the objectives of the Energy Union including the Framework scenario and the Roadmap for a secure, affordable, competitive and efficient energy system.

The mission of ETIP Bioenergy is to contribute to the development of cost-competitive, innovative world-class bioenergy, biofuels and other renewable liquid and gaseous fuel value chains including renewable electrofuels, to the creation and strengthening of a healthy European bioenergy industry and to accelerate the sustainable deployment of bioenergy and renewable fuels in the European Union through a process of guidance , prioritization and promotion of research, technological development and demonstration.

A wide range of Horizon projects made a significant contribution to the development of advanced biofuels technology in Europe. Links and details are included on the research funding page of the ETIP website.

1. Introduction

The future EU research and innovation programme " Horizon Europe - the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation " covers funding from — Advanced bioenergy. Advanced Bioenergy in Europe Contents This page offers general information on advanced bioenergy in Europe, with links to more detailed information on the ETIP Bioenergy website and other information sources. What is advanced bioenergy? Which advanced bioenergy products are there and how much is consumed?